Mongolia

Horses, yaks and promising steppes, this country sometimes referred to as "the land of the blue sky" reserve us some nice surprises.

La vidéo de notre passage en Mongolie

Où l’on en apprend beaucoup sur l’accueil…

Where is the Mongolia?

Its flag:

mongolie drapeau

General data

Population: 3 226 516 inhabitants (estimated 2013).
Capital: Ulan Bator (more than 30% of the population of the country).
Density: 2 hab./km².
Scheme: Republic, since 1992.
Official language: Mongol khalkha.
Religions: 86.5% of mixed Tibetan Buddhists has shamanic beliefs, 5.9% of Muslims (Kazakh).
Currency: tugrik (1 euro = 2100 tugrik)
Main activities: farming, mining, trade skins, wool and leather.
Unesco World Heritage sites: the Orkhon Valley cultural landscape (2004); petroglyphs of the Mongolian Altai sets (2011).
-Lag: 7 h from the France.

Speak and write in Mongolia

The language of this country is the Mongolian.

Since 1935, the Mongolian alphabet is a "Cyrillic" and it has 35 letters. These are almost the same letters used in Russia, but the pronunciation is different.

alphabet_cyrillique_mongol

Mongolian Cyrillic

Before 1935, this is how it wrote in Mongolia:

mongol-alphab-tradtxt[1]

Traditional Scriptures

History

THEMongol Empire or Death Empire, the largest continuous empire having never existed, was founded at the beginning of the XIIIe century by Genghis Khan, his sons and grandsons and their armies. The Mongolia was the centre of this empire.

The Mongolia was then ruled by the Qing dynasty (Chinese) from the 17th to the 20th century.

En 1911, independence The Mongolia was proclaimed.

In the 20th century, the Mongolia was officially independent, but its policy was aligned with that of the USSR. After the end of the cold war and the fall of communism, the country became one democracy in 1992.

Geography

The country has common borders with the China (4 673 km of borders) and the Federation of Russia (3 005 km of common borders). The average altitude is 1 580 m.

The country has no access to the sea. The landscape consists of vast plains (steppes) in the East and West, of mountains West (Altai and the Khangai) and to the North; to the South stretches the Gobi desertthe largest desert in Asia.

Climate and weather

The climate is Continental, with very marked seasons: very hot summers, very cold winters (-40 ° C). The seasons are therefore the same as in France, but many more marked.
The Mongolian climate is Sunny (270 days of Sun per year), mountain and especially dry. Rainfall is very low, but collected on the summer months (July and August).
Another major feature of the Mongolian climate, the winds violent, which blow throughout the year, particularly in the spring.

Economy

Nearly one-third of the Mongols were a nomadic way of life, they live from theanimal husbandry, of the cultivation of wheatbut also of theexport of textile products.

The country has large capacity for growth with the domain of themining (copper, coal, gold, uranium, gemstones,...). But because of the poverty of the road and rail network, these resources are difficult to operate.

The Mongolian economy has many strengths: raw materials, livestock, tourism; but they are too little exploited. Suddenly, made Mongolia one of the countries most indebted of the world. And the economic crisis in Russia and Japan, which provided aid to the Mongolia, made the situation worse.

Kitchen

Mongolian cuisine is composed of simple and little varied elements. The Mongols are great lovers of meat, fresh or dried.

The meat (MacRae), especially sheep, is in fact present in all the dishes, and accompanies the pasta or rice (way goulash), soups)Chol). She can also poke a fritters (khuchuur), of ravioli)buuz).
The vegetables (cabbage, potatoes, carrots), they are often present only in small amounts.
The rice (tsagaan budaa) or pasta are the core of every dish or almost, including soup, which is the unique dish regularly consumed in the yurt. It is only experienced by many breeders and they eat at each meal, twice a day.

The midi and in the summer the Mongols consume mainly of dairy products (various cheeses, fermented mare's milk, milk cream...) with Donuts)boortsog).

Drinks

Four specialties!

-The dirty milk tea (suutei tsai)infusion of black tea from China, mixed with milk, salt and sometimes butter. It is the essential complement to the meal.
THEairagthe fermented mare's milk, alcohol has 2 or 3 °. It is the national drink.
THEarkhiIt is distilled cow's milk, alcohol around 12 °, or much more if it is distilled several times.
-The vodka is becoming a Mongolian speciality. Imported from Russia or made on the spot, it brightens up the festivities, but also wreaked havoc among the population.

Sports

Traditional sports activities are the fight, shooting archery and horse racing. They are put in the spotlight during the Naadam Festival, a traditional celebration has become national holiday on 11 and 12 July.

Thank you The backpacker !